主題: 情報 SKI技術等級表
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舊 2010-03-21, 10:26 PM   #2
norman
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預設 回覆: SKI技術等級表

PSIA新的級數表:2010年版。我覺得這麼定義得蠻清楚,蠻棒的。

原文出處:

http://www.skimybest.com/skilevel.htm

PSIA skill levels for alpine skiers

SKI SCHOOLS arrange skiers into skill levels to help get students into the most productive learning situations. In the United States, these levels usually follow those defined by the Professional Ski Instructors of America. Level 1 is a first-time skier (never skied before, can't stop or turn) and level 9 is the highest, expert, level (and is a higher skill level than is required for instructors teaching most classes).

There are tremendous differences in the finesse of actions skiers can perform at these various levels. Yet the physical factors dealt with at each level are the same. These factors are the human body with its individual characteristics, varying snow types, differing ski-slope angles, fast or slow speeds, equipment differences, and more. And so modern ski instruction uses consistent progressions of the same basic skills to master higher levels as one moves up the learning ladder.

Commonly the first several skill levels (say levels 1 through 4) are accomplished in one session each of 2 to 3 hours (8 to 12 hours of lessons). Some beginners may be able to move through a level faster, and some will need to either retake a level or practice its maneuvers before moving up. Because skiing can be a lifetime sport, it is better to build an adequate foundation than to leave fundamentals unlearned or to have to relearn the better way to do a particular maneuver after learning it wrong--it's always easier to learn it right the first time. It might at first seem that instructors are trying to sell more lessons by having you move up the ladder one rung at a time or even to repeat a rung, but probably they will end up selling fewer lessons because folks will have a chance to get it right early on and thus avoid later fixes.

Progress is personal; it depends on factors such as other sports experiences, conditioning and functionality of one's body parts, attitudes, and equipment. Learning to ski is not a competitive activity.

Note in the levels outlined below, ski turns may follow the lines of the letter C (a single turn one way) or a backwards C (a single turn the other way), the letter S (linked turns each way, or Cs or Ss that are incomplete and/or have straight stretches before or after. Skiers speak of the parallel position of skis and of parallel turns. While parallel lines in mathematics always run straight, "parallel" lines in skiing may turn, just as "parallel" railroad tracks may. Note, too, that "parallel" in skiing means not only that each ski in the pair is aligned the same direction, but also that the bases are tilted at the same angle.

Skiers should aspire to at least skill level 6, that of solid parallel skiing, which will allow them to explore most of most ski areas with confidence and efficiency. As stated by the Professional Ski Instructors of America, "The parallel turn is your key measure to unlock the mountains' pleasures and treasures." While it is common for new skiers to progress up through level 4 or 5 with one lesson per level, higher skill levels usually require repeated lessons at the same level, more so if there is a time lapse between the sessions. If you can make the choice, take your initial lessons over a short time interval rather than over a whole season or more.

Again, ski schools may use a wedge approach to learning or direct-to-parallel. Both are valid. The choice may depend on terrain available and slope traffic any given day. Combining the two approaches is another way, and in the level descriptions below we include the skills learned in each of these ways to learn even though your instructor may introduce movements at different times than shown depending on which method is emphasized. The direct-to-parallel method involves more tipping of both skis while the wedge method involves more turning of the skis with the feet and legs.

●Level 1 Aspirations: (You have never skied before; perhaps you only want to try the sport out or you may already be committed to learn it.) Learn about equipment, how to walk and slide with skis parallel, climb using ski edges, turn while standing in place (bullfighter turn), turn while sliding by stepping, tip skis to turn, turn using the gliding wedge (snowplow, skis are in a V with the point in front), stop gradually using the braking wedge, how to fall and how to get up, and ride a surface and/or chair lift. Learn basic ski skills: twisting the legs, tilting the skis, and managing the amount and distribution of pressure on the skis. (Level 1 is the hardest ski lesson you'll ever take; it will give you the alphabet to "read" the "book" of skiing and you will learn the most in any lesson you will ever take; you might not complete all the elements above but if you can adequately turn and stop on the learning hill, you should be able to go on to level 2 ; look forward to level 2 for more fun.) Ski on practice slopes ("palest" green).

●Level 2 Aspirations: Groove in what was learned in Level 1. Add elements not covered earlier. Then, with foot tilting, turn the skis up the hill to slow and stop, then down the hill to make a complete turn. Also learn more about foot steering to change direction, improve gliding wedge turns and link them in S's, vary turn shapes, ski slightly faster speeds, improve balance, traverse. Ski on steeper parts of practice slopes ("pale" green).

●Level 3 Aspirations: Still starting turns by tipping the skis or in the gliding wedge, either maintain the skis parallel or steer them (as in a wedge christie) with the feet to parallel by the turn's finish, with skidding; ski a bit faster speeds than in level 2 so that speed that comes with steeper slopes can be managed. Move to easier green (easiest) slopes.

●Level 4 Aspirations: Still starting turns either by tipping skis while parallel or using the gliding wedge, with the feet maintain or steer skis (making an intermediate wedge christie) to parallel in mid-turn ; sideslip; do skidded parallel turns to a stop (hockey stop); ski faster speeds. Move to steeper green slopes, longer runs.

●■Level 5 Aspirations: Still starting turns either by tipping skis while parallel or using the gliding wedge, with the feet maintain the skis parallel or steer skis (making an advanced wedge christie) to parallel before mid-turn; optionally begin using ski-pole touches; explore easier blue terrain; experience uneven slopes and easier ungroomed snow conditions; ski still faster speeds; explore more of the mountain and begin to experience the full pleasures and joys of skiing. Ski steeper green slopes, more difficult parts of green slopes and easy blue slopes.

■Level 6 Aspirations: Stay in the parallel position throughout turns, tipping and steering skis with feet to produce turns; begin learning pure edged turns and pure steered turns; use ski poles in varied ways, experience shallower powder and smaller bumps, adjust skiing speed at will regardless of slope angle or snow type, vary turn shape, optionally run gates. By level 6, start analyzing what you hear about skiing equipment and technique so you know it makes sense to you and "try it before you buy it". Your personal goals and body attributes may indicate special choices from the buffet available. Ski more difficult blue slopes.

■♦Level 7 Aspirations: Expand skills into powder and bumps and ungroomed snow. Link short-radius turns. Isolate the skills of turning by pivoting the skis versus turning by tilting them, run gates, ski advanced terrain. Start making tactical choices to apply mechanics to situations of snow texture and terrain. Ski blue and black slopes.

♦Level 8 Aspirations: Apply tactical variations to turns for effect in varying conditions or for intent, let tilting the ski become the main tool for turning you instead of you twisting the ski with your foot, except in special situations like bumps or quick stops. Explore alternate turn entries--converging, parallel step, diverging, inside ski, one ski. Ski on black slopes and possibly double-black (extreme) slopes.

♦♦Level 9 Aspirations: Ski bumps with short or long-radius turns, ski deep powder, ski steeps, run gates; use the carved turn as your principal turning method but apply tactical choices accurately for conditions or intent; get into organized skiing as a racer, race official, instructor, or patrolman. Ski all slopes in all conditions is the ultimate goal, recognizing that Olympic racers and extreme skiers are in another zone of level 9.

This "Skier Skill Levels" page last modified 03/18/2010: \SkiMyBest\skilevel.htm. Copyright © 2010 William R Jones.
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